Saturday, May 23, 2020
Schizophrenia Ã¢â¬â Frightening and Exciting People have always been and always will be attracted by the visions of strange, frightening and mysterious; and what can be more so, than the things that happen inside humanÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, when the mind itself seems to rise against the human? The word Ã¢â¬Å"schizophreniaÃ¢â¬ is derived from the Greek words meaning Ã¢â¬Å"to splitÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"mindÃ¢â¬ , the literal translation being something like Ã¢â¬Å"split mindÃ¢â¬ and it is truly so Ã¢â¬â it affects the personÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive process, destroying the connections between reality, thought, emotion and behavior. It often results in hallucinations, delusions (mostly bizarre or persecutory), as well as disorganization of thinking process. The first signs of schizophrenia generally appear during the period of adolescence and early adulthood, severely impairing the personÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities to interact with the outer world. It goes without saying that such individuals can hardly lead normal social life. Although, however, there have been a number of rather picturesque examples of people suffering from this serious mental illness, who still showed considerable capacity to live and act, finally achieving a lot more than an average normal human being. One of the most well-known of them is John Forbes Nash, an American mathematician who was diagnosed as a schizophrenic during his study at college. Notwithstanding the fact that he refused to take medications and undergo treatment, he not only continued to work in the field of Mathematics, but also was awarded the NobelÃ¢â¬â¢s prize in 1994. His case became famous enough to inspire a book Ã¢â¬Å"The Beautiful MindÃ¢â¬ and the film based on it. All in all, schizophrenics range in the acuteness of their mental disorder and their possibility to fight them off. Generally they are much more dangerous for themselves, than for the other people.
Monday, May 18, 2020
Monday, May 11, 2020
Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1142 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/03/27 Category Politics Essay Level High school Tags: Rosa Parks Essay Did you like this example? Parks was a well-known and courageous leader who contributed to the Civil Rights Movement in the late 1900s. She earned the title, Mother of the Civil Rights Movement, after actively participating in several resistance movements throughout the country. One of the many nonviolent movements includes the incident on the City Lines bus in Montgomery, Alabama. Parks famously refused to obey a bus drivers order to move to the back of the bus for a white passenger. Her refusal created a great deal of conversation about racial equality, but how much did it actually benefit the cause? Rosa Louise McCauley was born on February 4, 1913 in the small town of Tuskegee, Alabama. Due to many illnesses and deaths in her family, Parks graduated from high school when she was twenty-one years old. By then, she was already married to Raymond Parks a self educated activist. Raymond and Rosa collaborated in a collection of programs under the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Before her arrest in 1955, Parks worked vigorously as the secretary and youth leader of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "A Courageous Leader Rosa Parks" essay for you Create order The 1896 United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the separate but equal teaching with the case of Plessy v. Ferguson. In this case, Homer Plessy Ã¢â¬ an African American train passenger Ã¢â¬ refused to sit in a train car specifically for African Americans. As a result, the usage of Jim Crow laws became popular in the south. Jim Crow laws led to mistreatment and a segregated life for African Americans. On this subject, Rosa Parks commented, This thing called segregation here is a complete and solid pattern as a way of life. We are conditioned to it and make the best of a bad situation. (dailymail.co.uk/wired/ap/article-2937437/Excerpts-Rosa-Parks-writings-Jim-Crow-segregation.html.) In the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, the 1954 United States Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation in public schools denied African Americans equal rights and was, therefore, unconstitutional. Due to other Supreme Court rulings Ã¢â¬ such as Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896Ã¢â¬ Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka was considered a turning point in the Civil Rights Movement. Even though this ruling alone did not succeed in school desegregation, it inspired others to take a stand against segregation in, not only schools, but in all public places. Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr., and Booker T. Washington are just a few of the people that changed the world forever. One year after the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Rosa Parks denied giving up her seat on a City Lines bus in Montgomery, Alabama. On December 1, 1955, Parks was riding back home from a hard day at work as a seamstress. She sat in the first row of the colored section. When the bus became full, the bus driver Ã¢â¬ James Blake Ã¢â¬ demanded that she move further back so that white passengers could sit down. She did not comply and was immediately arrested for civil disobedience. This action created an uproar and a demand for change in the world. In response to her arrest, Rosa said, Who would have thought that little Rosa McCauley would ever become a convicted criminal, much less a subversive worthy of police apprehension, in the eyes of the state of Alabama? (beaconbroadside.com/broadside/2014/12the-arrest-of-rosa-parks.html.) On December 5, 1955, two men Ã¢â¬ Martin Luther King Jr. and Ralph Abernathy Ã¢â¬ organized a boycott of Montgomerys buses under the Montgomery Improvement Association. They demanded that African American passengers should be treated with the same dignity and respect as the white passengers. Along with this, they proposed that the bus seating should be appointed on a first-come-first-serve basis and African American drivers should drive routes that served African Americans specifically. During this boycott, King and Abernathy were arrested. The homes of King and Abernathy were also bombed along with four churches. Still, the boycott relentlessly continued. Consequently, African Americans walked or rode bikes to work and the bus company lost thousands of dollars. After almost a year of boycotting the bus services, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Montgomery Improvement Association. The Supreme Court declared that segregation on buses was unconstitutional. The Montgomery bus boycott was one of the major resistance movements that encouraged African Americans to continue protesting and demanding for equal rights. Martin Luther King Jr. became one of the most recognized leaders of the Civil Rights Movement. He formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Under the organization, African Americans peacefully protested and fought Jim Crow segregation. When Rosa Parks sat down on the bus, she unintentionally started a revolution. Parks moved to Detroit, Michigan in 1957. There, she co-founded the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development. This program encouraged and motivated the youth to achieve their highest potential. The Institutes, Pathways to Freedom program, traces the underground railroad into the civil rights movement and beyond. Youth, ages 11 through 17, meet and talk with Mrs. Parks and other national leaders as they participate in educational and historical research throughout the world. They journey primarily by bus as freedom riders did in the 1960s, the theme: Where have we been? Where are we going? ( rosaparks.org/biography/.) Rosa Parks was an inspiration and model for the youth. For example, she took part in several Civil Rights programs and also served on the staff of U.S Representative John Conyers. As a dedication, the Southern Christian Leadership Council created an annual Rosa Parks Freedom Award. Parks strived for positivity and equality in the world. She courageously spent her life to better the lives of others. She also received a multitude of honorary certificates, medals, awards, and keys to many cities. Among these, she received the Martin Luther King, J#. Nonviolent Peace Prize. The death of her husband, Raymond Parks occured in 1977. After that, Rosa Parks spent the rest of her life living in retirement. When asked if she was happy in what she accomplished, Rosa Parks said, I do the very best I can to look upon life with optimism and hope and looking forward to a better day, but I dont think there is any such thing as complete happiness. It pains me that there is still a lot of Klan activity and racism. I think when you say youre happy, you have everything that you need and everything that you want, and nothing more to wish for. I havent reached that stage yet. (achievement.org/achiever/rosa-parks/.) Rosa Parks died on October 24, 2005 at the age of ninety-two. Her casket was placed in the United States Capitol for two days. She is the first African American woman to lie at the Capitol. This is considered an honor because it is usually reserved for former United States Presidents. Rosa Parks lived a life full of dignity, selflessness, and courageousness. Her legacy and memories against racial injustice will live on.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Globalization essay Globalization is the trend towards a single, integrated, and interdependent world. Some humans may not even realize globalization plays a part in our modern lives, but examples that may be classified as evidence of this trend include: the ability to buy products from dining cuisines belonging to myriad of different ethnical cultures, a joint project in which a multinational group of astronauts are sent to the moon, the visit of a Canadian circus troupe to China, the establishment of international and intercontinental trade agreements, and the ability to watch a live television broadcast from a foreign television station. These examples are made from looking at globalization as a whole, but from an economicÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦While trade is one of the major benefits of globalization, there is another that is deeply intertwined with humansÃ¢â¬â¢ lives: standard of living. Ã¢â¬Å"Examples of locations around the world that have dramatically improved their respective living standards since the 1950s would be the Four Tigers of East Asia Ã¢â¬â Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, and South Korea.Ã¢â¬ (Sarel). These four areas of interest have managed to improve their living standards by deregulating and changing government policies that would impede globalization and open up world trade. Ã¢â¬Å"The Globalization Index was compared to the life expectancy for various countries. A strong correlation appears between the degree to which a country has globalized and that countryÃ¢â¬â¢s life expectancy.Ã¢â¬ (Arnold 46). With better living standards, human life can be prolonged, seeing as more resources are given to that organism to ensure longer survival. In developing countries that have opened up their economies recently, we can detect exponential increases in income per person, meaning the citizens of that nation will be able to better provide for themselves and purchase goods and services with money that will be circulated, thereby exciting the econom y further. Increasing standard of living is not limited to those in developing countries. Globalization increases the income of countries that have opened up, and whenShow MoreRelatedEssay on Globalization1614 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand contested topic in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s context. Globalization includes aspects like: economics, politics, ideas, knowledge, culture, society, environment, health, social etcetera. Though globalization can be traced back into time immemorial, but the extent and magnitude of present globalization is unprecedented. The integration and interdependence of globalization implies that today local event can have global impact and vice-versa. With the ongoing globalization process, it raises concerns about internationalRead MoreAn Introduction to Globalization Essay2500 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages Globalization is a historical phenomenon that has been happening for decades now, and whether it generates growth or not is a matter of whose point of view it is. The western countries, especially America and some European nations, are the ones taking full advantage of the benefits of globalization. On the other hand, some experts say that globalization is not doing much for the developing countries, or that it may be even worsening their scenarios of poverty and social inequality. But, I willRead MoreGlobalization Source Analysis Essay730 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Globalization is the process by which different societies and cultures integrate through a worldwide network of political ideas through transportation, communication, and trade. 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This essay will discuss the definition of globalization and cultural homogenization, and the popularity of Hollywood movies in China, the phenomenon of convergenceRead MoreGlobalization: Local Cultures Essay1013 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGlobalization has been expanding all over the world, yet the debate whether it is good or bad for the world is still being discussed today. Some says that globalization makes the world healthier, but some others insist that the world is worse because of glo balization, and it could destroy the tradition values and cultures of other countries. This essay, however, argues that even though globalization has been expanding more and more, traditions, local values and cultures will not be eroded. FirstRead MoreEssay on The Benefits and Drawbacks of Globalization1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGlobalization can be defined as the ability to produce and good or service anywhere in the world using capital, technology and components from anywhere and to sell the output anywhere and place the profits anywhere - - Peter Jay, BBC Economics Corrospondent, 1996 Rather than lead to economic benefits for all people, economic globalization has brought the planet to the brink of environmental catastrophe, social unrest that is unprecedented, economies of most countries in shambles, an increaseRead MoreGlobalization Strategies and Power Essay611 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIPE Final Essay 1. It has been argued that globalization disposes states to converge on common economic policies and strategies. Using the literature covered in this course, critically evaluate the validity of the globalization-leads-to-convergence argument. It is a long observed fact that wealth and power are moving from the North and the West to the East and the South. This trend and the power transfer from western developed states to eastern developing states have given some anxiousRead MoreThe Pros and Cons of Globalization Essays1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesspread of cultures, trade, information and creating options, Globalization can be highly beneficial to everyone by bestowing great fortunes on us. This essay will highlight the positive and negative effects of globalisation, but also discuss solutions and evaluate them. Economists have used the term globalization since the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, although it was used in social sciences in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. However, the principles and ideas of globalization have not spread to the twentieth century. Globalisation isRead MoreGlobalization Perspective Essay771 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGlobalization has an impact both on a relatively small food industry as Hansens Natural and a relatively big food industry as Kraft Foods. HansenÃ¢â¬â¢s Natural Corporation develops, markets and distributes wide assortment of beverage products. It operates in the US. Kraft Foods manufactures, markets and packages food and beverages. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the largest packaged foods company in North America and second largest in the world, behind Nestle. The internet and IT has created a great opportunity for bothRead MoreDebate of Globalization Essay825 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1. Globalization affects national sovereignty of both developing countries as well as developed countries. By sovereignty, we mean the independence of countries to make decisions and conduct policy in different areas like the economy, corporate and industry related legislation, environmental regulations, politics, etc. From the video, please provide one example each of how globalization infringes on the national sovereignty of, a) a developing country, and, b) a developed country? How, and through
In this essay, the learning cure theory will be discussed, and also applying to L+H fashion limited (L+H) which will benefit by using the learning curve. In the last section, the limitation of learning curve will also be discussed. Part A (i) Introduction for learning curve theory Learning curve is a concept that measuring the experience of a skill gained by an organization, and how fast it can be master. We will write a custom essay sample on Ama, Learning or any similar topic only for you Order Now As the experience gained, the workers performance will be improve, time taken will be decrease, and therefore the productivity will grow up. Also, according to Steven (2010), learning curve is a significant technique for management to predict the time needed for the future task (p. 1). It can also be useful for the several areas, for instance, making a pricing or budgeting decision, estimate the wages cost and planning schedule of work. In addition, learning curve is based on the task doing by human and must be in repetition. And Steven (2010) point out that the learning curve doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t help to reduce cost, it only occurs when the management take action. Introduction for the organization In the following section, the learning curve theory will be apply to L+H Fashion Limited (L+H), they are manufacturing of knitwear which is 100% hand made and also made in Hong Kong, from design, product development, knitting, linking, stitching, labeling to packaging. (ii) Introduction First of all, the learning curve can be applied in L+H since there are many procedures is doing by human and those procedures will unchanged because of L+H is only produce the knitwear, also those procedure are in repetition. Such as stitching, the workers have to stitch up those parts of the knitwear by hand. In this situation, the learning curve can be apply, because if the worker stitching the first knitwear, it will spend more time to find out the way. Move to the second one, the worker will more confidence and faster to stitch it, in repetition the task, the worker can be more efficiency. Furthermore, since they would like to be a high fashion brand in Hong Kong, and providing high quality knitwear to the other high fashion brand, so they are now considering should they accept the new contract, build up their own brand or both. The learning curve can be use to helping them to consider the budgeting, pricing, detecting the design bugs, future operation decisions and determine the human resourse. Budgeting In this case, if the learning affects taken into L+H, it is easily for them to evaluate the rate of learning and the time reduction. It can provide a reliable standard to measuring the actual performance of the product line. Therefore, the management can obtain the most near information, giving them a forecast of revenues and expenditures. Thus, they can evaluate their performance, and control the waste from error, setting the budgeted goal. Beside the goals set by the learning effect is more motivation for the workers. Such as production budgeting, they can estimate the production unit to meet the budgeted goal. Since they would like to provide the knitwear to the new contract, they can forecast the cost, human resources and material need for the new contract. They should use learning curve, because the simple analysis will ignored the learning effect, so that the performance may underestimate. It can also help to set a standard for guiding the workers, use to ake sure the quality of knitwear, control the cost and to establish the bonus plan. So that the management can confirm the knitwear having a high quality to fulfill their goal that being a high fashion brand. They can also estimate the product cost, since the cost is foremost element for pricing decision To conclude, it can help L + H for budgeting, since it can give them a accuracy forecasting, to let them set up a budgeted goal to motivate the workers, to measur e their performance more exact, and the management can use to set out a guide to standard the task. Pricing It can help in pricing strategic. Since the learning curve can be determine the cost, manpower for the task and predict time of the whole project. For instance, the procedures of knitwear are made by the workers, so that the labor costs become significant factor. They can foresee how much for the labor cost before they accept the contract. Also the material cost. In addition, when the production increase and the cost will be drop down, they can sell the knitwear at a lower price, and attracting the new customers choosing L+H and to gain the market share at the high fashion cycle. So that they can produce more knitwear and the cost will be further decrease. To summaries of the pricing, it is helpful for them to making price decision, use to having a lower price which is attracting the new customers. Decision making Ã¢â¬â future operational Thirdly, it can help management to making decision for future operation by using the data provide by learning effect. L+H can consider should they provide the knitwear to the other brand or build up their own brand. Because the resources are limited, they can find out the most profitable future operation decision. In additional, they can also consider should they provide training course to the worker, to make the procedure become more efficient. Furthermore, they can plan to make advertising or giving discount to the customer, because they become more efficient and the cost will be deduced, so that they can have more budgets. And this action can make them become more famous and attract the new customers. In concluding of this part, it is useful for them to find out the business orientation which is most benefit for them, and the future action should be making. Detected the designed bugs Moreover, they can find out the designed bugs and correct it immediate. Since the L + H will do the task repetition, so that there are more product produce with the same equipment. The designer can seek out the insufficient of the design of knitwear. It is help to devolve their product and make it more perfect. Moreover, it can help to reduce the waste of error and also to reduce the labor hours since they can find out which part is wasting resources and to redesign the knitwear. Thus, they can know how to use the lower cost to make the better knitwear. To sum up, since the designed bugs can be detected, they can prevent the waste of material, time and the labor hours. Also it can used to improve their product. Determining human resourses For determining the human resourses, as L+H become more efficient, the management can reassign the manpower, eliminate the unnecessary task or recruit additional worker. So that they can ensure the contract can be finish on time and the quality wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be affect even they have to produce more knitwear. At the same time, the human resourses can be use in the best way. It can also help to plan the schedule of work to hit the production target, and forecast of the date of delivery. A round up of this part, the human resourse can be reallocate, and it is useful for cost saving. Part B Limitations Firstly, there is an assumption of learning curve that the production must be continues less of significant impediment. In case of the impediment occur the learning curve will be change. For example, when the entity employed a new worker to participate the activity, because of the learning curve performed by the experienced staff, the new worker will not be subject to learning curve. Secondly, any change of the learning environment such as design, the supply level and quality of materials, employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s morale and people attribution, will affect the learning curve. For instance, the upgrade of facilities may affect the knowledge of the worker, their productivity may drop down, so the learning curve may obsolete. Also, since learning curve is based on the time of producing, nevertheless it is hardly to ensure the real data obtain for the calculation, so that the management expectation may be wrong. The company culture may also influence the learning curve, such as the bonus for workers, working hours per day. For example, the worker zeal of the task will decrease when the job nearly end, it will make the curve drop down. In additional, difference people having difference absorptive capacity, so that the time of finishing task will be difference. Lack of consistence is fail to meeting target which is decision by learning curve theory. Last but not least, the learning curve need the task is in repetition, if the task is not repetitive the learning curve cannot be applied. Conclusion To conclude of the whole essay, the learning curve is a tool for management making decision and to become more efficiency to reach the goal. Also, the learning curve can be use in many ways. In part A (ii), discussed in the application of learning curve in L+H, they can use it for budgeting Ã¢â¬â helping them to set out the company goal and guidance, pricing Ã¢â¬â to having a lower price to increase their price competitiveness, decision making Ã¢â¬â to decide the most profitable general direction, detect the design error Ã¢â¬â to make the design become more perfect and determine the human resourse Ã¢â¬â to use the manpower most efficient. So that they can seek out the best way to continues their business. In the next part, the limitations of learning curve are discussed. There are six limitations have been probe, the learning curve is lack of continuity, there shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any change of learning environment, the difficulty of obtaining the information, the company culture, human learning ability and the repetition of task. Reference List 1. Steven, Grahame, (1999) Ã¢â¬ËThe learning curve: from aircraft to spacecraft? Management Accounting, May 1999 2. http://secure. gslb. cimaglobal. com/Documents/ImportedDocuments/ma_may_99_p64-65. pdf [assessed 01. 11. 2012] 3. Steven, Grahame, (2010) Ã¢â¬ËThe learning curve: The key to future management? Ã¢â¬â¢ Research executive summary series, 6(12) 4. Steven, Grahame, (2004b) Ã¢â¬ËSteep in historyÃ¢â¬â¢ CIMA Insider, Jul/Aug. , pp. 23-24 5. Steven, Grahame, (2004a) Ã¢â¬ËA minor departureÃ¢â¬â¢ CIMA Insider, Sep. , pp. 24 6. L+H Fashion Limited http://www. lplush. com/LplusH. html [assessed 01. 11. 2012] How to cite Ama, Learning, Essay examples
Question: Write an essay on "Port Phillip Bay". Answer: Abstract The catchment depleting into Port Phillip Bay is possessed by using rural areas of the extra outstanding Melbourne metropolis range with a populace of around 3.7 million. What's more the Corangamite catchment moreover depletes to Port Phillip, containing the neighborhood metropolis of Geelong (population 200, 000). The ten districts that adjoin Port Phillip Bay are predominately metropolitan and for the most section are the specific board of trustees of administration with duties related to shoreline and foreshore administration of the Port Phillip Bay coastline. All are participants from the organization of Bayside Municipalities. A huge component of these committees has amplified their arranging plan limit 600 meters toward the ocean to enhance incorporation of catchment and marine administration. Administration of Port Phillip Bay is tricky and entails a mounted system of government, confidential section and group workplaces working cooperatively without basis of a specified Inlet or water nice administration place of work. It is a case of an administration framework that has developed in terms of a state executive/regional executive framework and has a high-quality historical past of tending to specified water administration issues for the Bay all in all. The co-appointment of activities, guideline and support is given via the association of Bay side regions, which was framed in 1974 to improve the adequacy of regional government administration of Port Phillip Bay. Firstly it gave a gathering to neighborhood govt. engineers and administration suppliers, especially picking out with shoreline cleaning. An most important persuading aspect used to be the sum of urban litter and flotsam and jetsam coming to beaches and influencing visible and recreational enhancement and over time the comprehension of the development of litter by way of channels and conduits has knowledgeable their process. A noteworthy ecological investigation of the Bay was led by using CSIRO from 1992 - 96 and has guided consequent administration waiting for general water great. The huge marine contamination issues are silt masses in storm water and the supplement stages from storm water and therapy crops getting into the Bay. These have got to be overseen to cut down the threat of aggravation algal and ocean progress blossoms. The ABM led a venture smooth Storm water a Planning Framework with money associated backing from the Commonwealth and Victorian Governments. It incorporated the group and the private phase. The final report of this anticipates established a process for water touchy city configuration and administration of storm water for Port Phillip Bay. This brought on the Clearwater program, a joint activity of the Municipal Relationship of Victoria and the Storm water enterprise organization of Victoria, to take the teachings of supportable urban water administration to extraordinary materials of Victoria. Introduction Port Phillip Bay is a gigantic encased water mass with a floor range of practically 2,000 square kilometers and an aggregate volume of 26 cubic kilometers accepting the hold running off from a noteworthy urbanized catchment of very nearly 10,000 square kilometers. The conveyance of dietary supplements and silt to the Bay is firmly littered with precipitation. The Bay is related to Bass Strait by a restrained channel additionally, the encased shallow water mass is ineffectively flushed but very so much blended. The typical conversion scale for Inlet waters is previously at average intervals however more successive in the southern phase nearest to Bass Strait and less incessant in the north and in Corio Bay. From the 1850s to the reward the number of inhabitants in the catchment has developed from 75,000 to 3.7 million. Figure: Port Philip bay Water healing has been a large challenge within the development and administration of the city of Melbourne for greater than a century. By the top of the nineteenth century, the waste and sewage infection of the Yarra River had been bringing about exact wellness issues. This drove the Melbourne Metropolitan Board of Works to set out on a noteworthy sewerage software in 1893 with the principal Melbourne properties being related in 1897 to a waste therapy plant at Werribee close to 30 kilometers to the south west of Melbourne. Figure: Port Philip bay eco system Ten Bayside districts have rapid neighborhood executive responsibilities involving shoreline and foreshore administration. In 1974 the association of Bayside Municipalities was once shaped to improve the viability of neighborhood government administration of shorelines and seaside waters of Port Phillip Bay and to supply a communitarian gathering to backing in addition, pastime. As the town of Melbourne and its auto approach have developed, land use has always transformed from territories of almost agrarian use, by way of to seashore entrance recreational and nation private, to mainly urban confidential use. The traditional surroundings and the recreational enhancement of the shoreline and foreshore territories are important to the character and administration of the Bay. Port Phillip Bay spreads 1,950 square kilometers. At the same time mainly expansive in territory the Bay is shallow with a normal profundity of 13 meters. The Bay's catchment covers greater than 9,790 square kilometers in territory, and includes of 21 usual waste bowls. The Bay comprises of an assortment of environments together with sandy ocean bottom, sea grass quaint little inns reefs. The bigger a part of the ocean bottom is sand and residue which is dwelling to a differing gathering of spineless creatures. These unattainable areas of sand are in some ingredients secured by way of thick sea grass knolls that give imperative dwelling area to much marine lifestyles, especially adolescent fish. Tough reefs can likewise be determined on a few edges of the Bay in most cases being commanded by means of many amazing ocean progress. EPA has been checking water first-rate in Port Phillip Bay at six destinations for greater than 30 years. This checking process used to be accelerated for the term of the Channel Deepening assignment and for a long time taking after its finishing from 2008 to 2011. To lower the ecological influences to Port Phillip Bay from the Channel Deepening assignment, an association of principles have been produced to manipulate when, the place and how digging will have to be possible. Supporting these guidelines were thirteen inlet vast checking packages that gathered information on the sound's wellness someplace round 2008 and 2011. Amongst these, EPA has led its elevated water high-quality checking application and measured contaminant fixations in fish of the scale back Yarra River. Figure: Port Philip bay The Bay backings: roughly 300 varieties of fish a couple of hundred varieties of molluscs a couple of hundred types of shellfish at least 200 forms of kelp a number of hundred types of polychaetes (abound worms) 2 varieties of seagrass a number of hundred types of cnidarians (jellyfish, corals, and so forth) a few hundred forms of wipes The Bay is of noteworthy social, monetary and natural valued at to Victoria. Tiers of the Bays lovely and more than a few submerged environments are likewise ensured in Marine country wide Parks and Sanctuaries. Probably the most severe risks to the force of Port Phillip Bay are from convergences of supplements and marine vermin intrusions. The Port Phillip Bay Environmental management Plan diagrams moves to be made to maintain these risks. Port Philip bay environment plan The EMP assumes a relevant section in giving an administration process to focusing on a 1000 ton scale down in every year nitrogen burdens to the Bay by using 2006. This diminishment is required via the State atmosphere defense coverage for Port Phillip Bay. The core of nitrogen diminishment is on the Western treatment Plant and catchment conduits. The EMP likewise sets up courses of motion to display the soundness of methods working in the Bay's dregs that let nitrogen, the primary complement of predicament that enters the Bay to upward thrust off as nitrogen fuel. The 1992-1996 CSIRO Bay gain knowledge of highlighted the importance of this supplement cycling method and the primary phase it plays in adjusting the nitrogen spending plan of the Bay. A checking venture is in advancement that plans to differentiate, as forward of time table as could be prudent, and opposed alterations to common components of the Bay's nitrogen biking varieties. Environmental issues and polices One other, chance assemble approach to take care of environment limits in mild of turbidity in order to make certain sea grasses within the southern locales of the Bay was produced by Environ metrics Australia. Six-hourly Exponentially Weighted moving average (EWMA) manipulate outlines and 2-week moving usual manage graphs had been likewise created by using Environ metrics Australia. These figuring apparatuses supply, separately, an early cautioning capacity and an analysis of the chance that base mild specifications for sea grasses will probably be kept up. In 2007, the administrative center of the Environmental monitor, an autonomous government physique, was once mounted to examine the common strategies of the task, in particular to ensure that the venture adjusts to the EMP. The pursuits of the free physique have been to "Be open to all partners and the community; Scrutinize, file and immediate on the project's ecological execution in an autonomous and straightforward method; keep up a correspondence all accessible knowledge on the undertaking's normal execution in a effortless approach to companions and the staff. The utilization of a robust gazing instrument in giving certain and easy data used to be a important perspective to the venture. SRA knowledge science gave its EnviroSys programming as the instrument whereby turbidity is checking and vessel following would happen gradually. Early cautioning alarms would be created by using the looking at equipment to coach when predefined exceedance stages had been activated. In February 2005, the free board discharged their file on the EES, introducing 137 key materials of the EES which required expanding on. These integrated extra examination of channel extending plans; examination of digging innovation; examination of first-rate systems for silt switch, and examination of turbidity. The board's proposals caused the Trial Dredge application that took place from 6 August 2005. Therefore, on 31 March 2005, the then Minister for Planning Rob Hulls declared that the PoMC can be required to do a Supplementary Environmental results statement to assist study the ecological influence of the digging venture and handle its deficiencies. Constructions stated the SEES would "develop upon the EES approach thus far" and would be "based upon the key tiers plot through the board and bear in mind extra master evaluation". Environmental control Defiled dug material from the Port Melbourne, Williamstown and Yarra River directs used to be discarded in the current Port of Melbourne Dredge fabric floor, which covers a zone of round 9.36 km2. The web page was once relied upon to be reached out towards the south by using a range of 2.7 km2 to oblige the dug material volumes as an aftereffect of the digging venture and to swimsuit dug material volumes from future maintenance digging. Uncontaminated dug material from the South Channel and the excellent Ship Channel was once to be discarded in a dug material ground yet to be implicit the south east a part of the straight, anticipated that will duvet a area of 7.78 km2. Those substances that are sullied were to be put away in a submerged mud legislation region known as a "bund" at the present Port of Melbourne DMG, and topped with clean dug sand. Pollution issues From correct on time ever, administration of water first-rate influencing Port Phillip Inlet has been tended to with first-class latest procedures. Current administration destinations were created in the light of a noteworthy natural investigation of the Bay led through CSIRO from 1992 to 1996 also, lengthy haul patterns distinctive through the atmosphere protection Authority Victoria from progressing checking know-how for 1984 to 1999. A principal component in raising open mindfulness was once a labeled litter learns directed by way of Melbourne Water enterprise. The distribution of the file of this learn in 1993 pulled in giant media curiosity what's extra, pushed particularly to behavioral trade programs tending to pet dung, cigarette butts and litter from bistros and remove sustenances. Supplement releases have diversified in a broad variety to a satisfactory extent suffering from precipitation and overflow. The CSIRO be trained contrasted late long haul staring at and prior checking out information and proposed that complement stages had been sensibly constant subsequent to 1984 and are usually not precisely those within the 1970s before essential redesigning of sewage remedy. Storm water thousands of litter, trash and sediments are the issues of important center for neighborhood executive. The impacts of city storm water contamination are skilled most particularly via the organizations of the chambers that outskirt Port Phillip Bay. That is most apparent when dirtied spillover after summer storms motives shoreline terminations or significant store of litter on beaches. Water sparing and reuse has an element in lessening streams of supplements and residue attaining the marine environment youngsters that this isn't the riding suggestion. Dredging the port Philip bay It has been portrayed as Australia's most astounding need groundwork enterprise, pressing for our future reasonability. The digging of Port Phillip Bay will provide tremendous-sized compartment ships entry to Melbourne's port, however it will be a big venture; greater than equivalent to burrowing a 15-meter huge with the aid of 2-meter profound trench amongst Melbourne and Sydney. Supporters of channel extending, incorporating numerous in Victoria's government and industry group, say the assessed $969 million assignment will support fares and exchange and hold the state's economic system sound into what's to come back. Be that as it'll, will the financial benefits be conveyed with inadmissible common costs? Spoilers say powers are neglecting to answer principal inquiries related to the effect of digging on soft marine biological methods. Will hazardous dregs combined up on the Yarra River mouth become the sound into a cloudy soup and reason a watery calamity? As of now the enterprise, set to begin February 2008, is defaced by using contention with an self sustaining board damningly incredulous of the governments first ecological appraisal, while a 2nd pastime additionally went beneath investigation. Associate with us as we examine the trouble from the mouth of the Yarra to the Port Phillip heads. Port Philip bay system and potential CDP hazards The Bay is a shallow beach front embayment, with a limited passageway subject to solid tidal impacts and a lower-vitality inward region that is more influenced by wind-driven streams. The surge tide delta inside the Bay is known as the Great Sands, and is made out of a halfway combined substratum of sands and a meager finish of portable sands. While there are sandy shorelines around a significant part of the edge of the Bay, base dregs in the internal Bay are generally salty tending to clayey in the inside. There is a contribution of sand from Bass Strait, and also from beach front disintegration around the Bay. A great part of the contribution of sediment is gotten from the Yarra River catchment and other inflowing streams; some of this information is synthetically polluted. The "opening" or cross-segment of the Bay Entrance decides the rate of tidal inflow what's more, surge, and consequently the degree of tidal impact on ocean levels and streams, as well as physico-substance trade between the Bay and Bass Strait. An expansion in this gap because of digging, or disintegration, will specifically influence the tidal environment of the Bay and related streams and dregs development. Changes in the bathymetry of inward parts of the Bay because of CDP digging or ruin transfer will influence neighborhood current examples and force, and henceforth may influence dregs development and shoreline profiles to some degree. A key part of the Bay's biology is the breakdown of plant and creature garbage on the surface of and inside the ocean bottom residue. This is vital to keep up a parity between the contribution of supplements from waterway and waste inflows, and the loss of supplements from the framework, by either altering in inorganic structures in the silt or discharge to the air. Supplements are taken up in biomass, at first as tiny fish, microphytobenthos and green growth, and an overabundance of supplements can prompt persevering algal blossoms unless a proficient expulsion procedure can keep on operating through the biota-rubbish residue water-environment interfaces. The CDP could conceivably prompt either a makeshift abundance of supplements through their discharge from dug residue or a lessening in the "denitrification" effectiveness of base residue. A scope of human exercises inside the Bay and bordering catchments over the past one hundred and seventy years have influenced conditions inside the Bay, such that living spaces can generally be portrayed as semi-natural. In spite of the broad info of suspended dregs, supplements and contaminants from waterways, streams and depletes, the Bay waters, dregs and biota remain moderately unpolluted, with the special case of territories, for example, Corio Bay, Hobsons Bay and the mouths of conduits. More than three million individuals now live and work in the catchments of the Bay, and numerous take part in entertainment exercises, for example, swimming, jumping, cruising and sculling, too as both recreational and business angling, in the Bay. There is an exceedingly assorted benthic and pelagic widely varied vegetation in the Bay. The Bay bolsters critical fish stocks that are the objective of business and/or recreational fishers, including surely understood fish species, for example, King George whiting and snapper, and also a scope of different types of biological significance. A significant part of the Bay's floor has a scanty biota of indigenous species, while broad territories have been colonized by nuisance species. In any case, broad zones of regular or semi-regular biological groups stay both inside and bordering the Bay. Most outstandingly, there are thick sea grass beds in Swan Bay and the Geelong Arm, also as littler regions of sea grass on parts of the Great Sands. These sea grass ranges give critical natural surroundings, including "nursery" territory, for a scope of fish animal varieties. In regions like Swan Bay and Mud Islands, and along the Western Port Phillip coastline, the between tidal, sub-tidal and physical vegetation underpins various fauna, including huge quantities of transitory winged animals. Other essential environment regions incorporate the middle of the road kelp-overwhelmed reefs and profound reef invertebrate groups in the Bay Entrance, which have elevated amounts of biodiversity. At the flip side of the Bay, the lower Yarra River estuary gives living space for species moving amongst freshwater and marine situations. Supplement rich surges from the Yarra River into Hobsons Bay, and in addition the Western Treatment Plant, bolster an abnormal state of tiny fish efficiency, which thus bolster a natural way of life including expansive quantities of anchovy furthermore higher-request feeders, for example, Little Penguins and different seabirds. Figure: bathymetry and setting of the bay CDP potential hazards A key peril of the CDP digging would be the technology of a turbid tuft, which may just have an impact on plant profitability given that of lessened mild accessibility, and also just a few impedance with plant and creature physiology, moreover creature nourishing behavior. As a final result, there's liable to be some lessening in each plant and creature profitability, and due to this fact most likely the catch of some fish species. The turbid tuft and the associated motion of the dig might likewise affect typical pleasantry for leisure clients of neighborhoods the Bay where digging is taking place, in connection to water first-class, clamor and the visual nearness of the dig. Additional, the crest speaks to a expertise threat to a couple mechanical operations reliant on water admission from the Yarra River or Bay. As an effect of those final influences or dangers, abilities economic and social effects for Bay and Yarra River clients other than PoMC will have to be regarded. The CDP digging of conceivably debased fabric from the lessen Yarra River what's extra, Hobsons Bay indicates a competencies hazard as far as each the persona of any tuft from this fabric and the appearance of contaminants at the dug fabric ground. There are some skills for each biota and individuals to be influenced. The control of these dangers, and other CDP perils, will greatly rely on upon the hardware utilized and rehearses embraced. A specific drawback emerging from digging in the Yarra River is the capabilities for obstruction with outsider basis crossing the stream, together with know-how transfers, a fuel pipeline and a trunk sewer. At lengthy last, the CDP presents talents health risks as far as, to start with, the habits of the digging itself influencing average transporting and cruising tendencies, and, second, the future developments of larger boats within the augmented sending channels. Potential CDP effects In mild of the CDP dangers influencing Bay frameworks and assets, the potential ecological influences that should be regarded on this comparison incorporate: Potential for lengthy haul changes to examples of water and dregs development into, out of and inside the Bay; Capabilities for negative results on the Bay's biological methods, especially as a consequence of turbid tufts and sedimentation from suspended dregs produced through digging; Expertise for improved risks to human wellbeing resulting from unsafe algal sprouts, what's extra, meeting of defiled dregs; Skills for lessening in leisure comfort, given that of turbid tufts and the digging movement itself, Skills for monetary effects on different clients of the Bay and cut back Yarra River water, as an aftereffect of lessened water quality, dislodging of exercises or multiplied dangers to framework; Expertise for results on Aboriginal and put up-contract social legacy, either submerged within or bordering the Bay; Knowledge changes in the risks to the Bay's environment and consumers from higher ships and alterations to transportation progress designs. Management plan Certain disorders proper now centered in administration are: Discount of combination nitrogen releases to the Bay by means of 1,000 tons for each year; Discount of silt burdens by way of administration of storm water; Discount of litter and flotsam and jetsam by way of water sensitive city outline; Saving and re-utilization of freshwater; and Making a choice on and overseeing presented marine irritations. Chiefly the Northern Pacific starfish. Local government, via the ABM, is firmly excited about water first-rate administration of Port Phillip Narrows. The committees have direct responsibilities related to shoreline cleaning and administration of regional rivers and deplete and have built up a deliberate methodology for promoting, state funded training and media use to elevate mindfulness and response to shoreline and water fine. The legitimate of the ABM comprises of Committee Chairs and there's yearly revolution so that the role of Chair of ABM moves from gathering to committee. The respectable contains of the gift, quick prior and assigned successor Chair. This guarantees congruity, offers new vitality and brings new features of view to awaken the work of the gathering. The ABM has worked with state govt., Melbourne Water, the Municipal organization of Victoria, neighborhood agencies and industry to create rules and norms for water sensitive urban configuration. The directions are being linked within the catchment for new "green field" upgrades and entrepreneurially in redevelopment and open works constructing of built up zones. Due to this fact they are effectively adding to enhancements to the nature of storm water from catchments that burn up into Port Phillip. A continuing with highlight of ABM administration is the utilization of somewhat quantity of secure standard open crusade messages on issues, for example, litter and professional waste transfer by all gatherings. Storm water management The ABM chambers, with backing from the Australian and Victorian governments and financing raised via group bunches, have attempted capital works applications for establishment of gross infection and residue traps. When you consider that these "finish-of-funnel" medicines are just part of the arrangement, the ABM set out on noteworthy venture clean Storm water an arranging approach with backing from the Federation and State Governments. The project constructed up a water smooth city configuration toolbox for the outline, switch, filtration, confinement and ability of freshwater at scales at the local, neighborhood in addition, neighborhood stages. This assume has been performed in parallel and as a workforce with Clearwater understanding exchange, a joint activity of the Municipal organization of Victoria and the Storm water industry Relationship of Victoria. This is ecological instruction software financed by means of the atmosphere Assurance Authority Victoria as a foremost side of the Victorian Storm water motion application. It conducts instructive ventures and events and continues up a website with a long way accomplishing databases on encounters, accomplishments and administration classes learned via regional and state executive and industry in overseeing storm water, wastewater and water safeguard. Neighboring gatherings alongside the Yarra and the Maribyrnong have fascinated with the venture quite simply with positive effects and rehashed practices 'upstream'. Conclusion The administration process is given via a mounted method of presidency, confidential division and staff offices working cooperatively without a certain Bay or water fine administration planning workplace. The Victorian State government tasks related to imperative administration and checking of water nature of Port Phillip Bay leisure with the atmosphere security Authority. The objectives for water quality are hooked up through the environment protection Authority via enforceable controls. The Port Phillip Bay Environmental management Plan was installed in 2002 by means of the department of typical property and environment to present the method to assembly the water exceptional ambitions. Melbourne Water is answerable for water reaping, supply and medication. References B., G. and Godsell, P. (1936). Arctic Trader: An Account of Twenty Years with the Hudson's Bay Company. The Geographical Journal, 87(4), p.369. Ball, P. (2005). Closing the window keeps volcanoes at bay. news@nature. Bateman, P. (1946). Archaeological Notes on the Saldanha Bay District. The South African Archaeological Bulletin, 1(2), p.41. Bessinger, B., Cooke, T., Forman, B., Lee, V., Mineart, P. and Armstrong, L. (2006). A Kinetic Model of Copper Cycling in San Francisco Bay. SFEWS, 4(1). Boulcott, P. and Howell, T. (2011). The impact of scallop dredging on rocky-reef substrata. Fisheries Research, 110(3), pp.415-420. Dredging halted to save hypersaline bay. (1994). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 28(12), p.717. Fraser, C., Hutchings, P. and Williamson, J. (2006). Long-term changes in polychaete assemblages of Botany Bay (NSW, Australia) following a dredging event. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 52(9), pp.997-1010. Gergis, J., Brohan, P. and Allan, R. (2010). The weather of the First Fleet voyage to Botany Bay, 1787-1788. Weather, 65(12), pp.315-319. Goldring, P. (2008). Scottish Recruiting for the Hudson's Bay Company 1821 - 1880. International Review of Scottish Studies, 10(0). Goldring, P. (2008). Scottish Recruiting for the Hudson's Bay Company 1821 - 1880. International Review of Scottish Studies, 10(0). Graca, B. (2009). The Puck Bay as an example of deep dredging unfavorably affecting the aquatic environment. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies, 38(2). Graca, B. and Dudkowiak, M. (2007). Microbiological changes in the environment caused by deep dredging. A case study: post-dredging pit Kunica II (Puck Bay). Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies, 36(1). Haines, T. (1889). Dredging and Reclaiming Land in Glorietta Bay, California. Sci Am, 60(21), pp.319-319. Hquette, A., Tremblay, P. and Hill, P. (1999). Nearshore erosion by combined ice scouring and near-bottom currents in eastern Hudson Bay, Canada. Marine Geology, 158(1-4), pp.253-266. Jones, G. (1981). Effects of dredging and reclamation on the sediments of Botany Bay. Mar. Freshwater Res., 32(3), p.369. Jones, G. and Candy, S. (1981). Effects of dredging on the macrobenthic infauna of Botany Bay. Mar. Freshwater Res., 32(3), p.379. Kindle, E. (1916). Bottom control of marine faunas as illustrated by dredging in the Bay of Fundy. American Journal of Science, s4-41(245), pp.449-461. Levine, P. (1980). Depot Bay. The Missouri Review, 4(2), pp.9-10. Levine, P. (1980). I Wanted You To Know, and: Depot Bay. The Missouri Review, 4(2), pp.5-10. Grant Gross, William B. Cronin, (1977). Dredging and Spoil Disposal in Chesapeake Bay, 1975-2025: ABSTRACT. Bulletin, 61. Mann, A. (1893). List of Diatomaceae from a deep-sea dredging in the Atlantic Ocean off Delaware Bay by the U. S. Fish Commission steamer Albatross. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 16(937), pp.303-312. Mostafa, Y. (2012). Environmental impacts of dredging and land reclamation at Abu Qir Bay, Egypt. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 3(1), pp.1-15. Phillips, D. and Grover, P. (1994). Polycyclic Hydrocarbon Activation: Bay Regions and Beyond. Drug Metabolism Reviews, 26(1-2), pp.443-467. Reichelt, A. and Jones, G. (1994). Trace metals as tracers of dredging activity in Cleveland Bay field and laboratory studies. Mar. Freshwater Res., 45(7), p.1237. Reid, P. (1980). Toxic dinoflagellates and tidal power generation in the Bay of Fundy, Canada. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 11(2), pp.47-51. Roberts, P. (2001). Closure to Modeling Mamala Bay Outfall Plumes. II: Far Field by Philip J. W. Roberts. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 127(2), p.164. Roberts, P. (2001). Closure to Modeling Mamala Bay Outfall Plumes. I: Near Field by Philip J. W. Roberts. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 127(2), p.161. S., E. and Kenway, P. (1929). Pioneering in Poverty Bay, N. Z. The Geographical Journal, 73(4), p.388. Smith, N. (2005). Transport through Tavernier Creek: a primary flushing pathway for Northeast Florida Bay. Ocean Dynamics, 55(5-6), pp.449-457. Sykes, J. (1971). Implications of Dredging and Filling in Boca Ciega Bay, Florida. Environmental Letters, 1(2), pp.151-156. Szymelfenig, M., Kotwicki, L. and Graca, B. (2006). Benthic re-colonization in post-dredging pits in the Puck Bay (Southern Baltic Sea). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 68(3-4), pp.489-498. Trayner, P. and Cooper, M. (1984). Cleavage geometry and the development of the Church Bay Anticline, Co. Cork, Ireland. Journal of Structural Geology, 6(1-2), pp.83-87. Williams, P. (1989). Managing freshwater inflow to the San Francisco Bay Estuary. Regul. Rivers: Res. Mgmt., 4(3), pp.285-298. Yam, P. (2002). Keeping the Mad Cows at Bay. Sci Am, 287(1), pp.38-39. Yuan, P. (2015). Archi-Union Architects, City of Breeze, Shenzhen Bay, Shenzhen, China. Archit. Design, 85(6), pp.110-113. Zhang, Z., Zong, H., Wang, Y. and Zhang, Z. (2012). Effects of Sediment Dredging on the Diffusion Fluxes of Nutrients between Sediment and Water in Dalian Bay. AMR, 518-523, pp.347-351.
Thursday, April 30, 2020
Lyme Disease Lyme Arthritis ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted inflammatory disorder characterized by an early focal skin lesion, and subsequently a growing red area on the skin (erythema chronicum migrans or ECM). The disorder may be followed weeks later by neurological, heart or joint abnormalities. Symptomatology ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The first symptom of Lyme disease is a skin lesion. Known as erythema chronicum migrans, or ECM, this usually begins as a red discoloration (macule) or as an elevated round spot (papule). The skin lesion usually appears on an extremity or on the trunk, especially the thigh, buttock or the under arm. This spot expands, often with central clearing, to a diameter as large as 50 cm (c. 12 in.). Approximately 25% of patients with Lyme disease report having been bitten at that site by a tiny tick 3 to 32 days before onset of ECM. The lesion may be warm to touch. Soon after onset nearly half the patients develop multiple smaller lesions without hardened centers. ECM generally lasts for a few weeks. Other types of lesions may subsequently appear during resolution. Former skin lesions may reappear faintly, sometimes before recurrent attacks of arthritis. Lesions of the mucous membranes do not occur in Lyme disease. The most common symptoms accompanying ECM, or preceding it by a few days, may include malaise, fatigue, chills, fever, headache and stiff neck. Less commonly, backache, muscle aches (myalgias), nausea, vomiting, sore throat, swollen lymph glands, and an enlarged spleen may also be present. Most symptoms are characteristically intermittent and changing, but malaise and fatigue may linger for weeks. Arthritis is present in about half of the patients with ECM, occurring within weeks to months following onset and lasting as long as 2 years. Early in the illness, migratory inflammation of ma ny joints (polyarthritis) without joint swelling may occur. Later, longer attacks of swelling and pain in several large joints, especially the knees, typically recur for several years. The knees commonly are much more swollen than painful; they are often hot, but rarely red. Baker's cysts (a cyst in the knee) may form and rupture. Those symptoms accompanying ECM, especially malaise, fatigue and low-grade fever, may also precede or accompany recurrent attacks of arthritis. About 10% of patients develop chronic knee involvement (i.e. unremittent for 6 months or longer). Neurological abnormalities may develop in about 15% of patients with Lyme disease within weeks to months following onset of ECM, often before arthritis occurs. These abnormalities commonly last for months, and usually resolve completely. They include: 1. lymphocytic meningitis or meningoencephalitis 2. jerky involuntary movements (chorea) 3. failure of muscle coordination due to dysfunction of the cerebellum (cerebellar ataxia) 4. cranial neuritis including Bell's palsy (a form of facial paralysis) 5. motor and sensory radiculo-neuritis (symmetric weakness, pain, strange sensations in the extremities, usually occurring first in the legs) 6. injury to single nerves causing diminished nerve response (mononeuritis multiplex) 7. inflammation of the spinal cord (myelitis). Abnormalities in the heart muscle (myocardium) occur in approximately 8% of patients with Lyme disease within weeks of ECM. They may include fluctuating degrees of atrioventricular block and, less commonly, inflammation of the heart sack and heart muscle (myopericarditis) with reduced blood volume ejected from the left ventricle and an enlarged heart (cardiomegaly). When Lyme Disease is contracted during pregnancy, the fetus may or may not be adversely affected, or may contract congenital Lyme Disease. In a study of nineteen pregnant women with Lyme Disease, fourteen had normal pregnancies and normal babies. If Lyme Disease is contracted during pregnancy, possible fetal abnormalities and premature birth can occur. Etiology ~~~~~~~~ Lyme disease is caused by a spirochete bacterium (Borrelia Burgdorferi) transmitted by a small tick called Ixodes dammini. The spirochete is probably injected into the victim's skin or bloodstream at the time of the insect bite. After an incubation period of 3 to 32 days, the organism migrates outward in the skin, is spread through the lymphatic system or is disseminated by the blood to different body organs or other skin sites. Lyme Disease was first described in 1909 in European medical journals. The first outbreak in the United States occurred in the early 1970's in Old lyme, Connecticut. An unusually high Lyme Disease Lyme Arthritis ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Lyme Disease Is A Tick-tran Lyme Disease Lyme Arthritis ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted inflammatory disorder characterized by an early focal skin lesion, and subsequently a growing red area on the skin (erythema chronicum migrans or ECM). The disorder may be followed weeks later by neurological, heart or joint abnormalities. Symptomatology ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The first symptom of Lyme disease is a skin lesion. Known as erythema chronicum migrans, or ECM, this usually begins as a red discoloration (macule) or as an elevated round spot (papule). The skin lesion usually appears on an extremity or on the trunk, especially the thigh, buttock or the under arm. This spot expands, often with central clearing, to a diameter as large as 50 cm (c. 12 in.). Approximately 25% of patients with Lyme disease report having been bitten at that site by a tiny tick 3 to 32 days before onset of ECM. The lesion may be warm to touch. Soon after onset nearly half the patients develop multiple smaller lesions without hardened centers. ECM generally lasts for a few weeks. Other types of lesions may subsequently appear during resolution. Former skin lesions may reappear faintly, sometimes before recurrent attacks of arthritis. Lesions of the mucous membranes do not occur in Lyme disease. The most common symptoms accompanying ECM, or preceding it by a few days, may include malaise, fatigue, chills, fever, headache and stiff neck. Less commonly, backache, muscle aches (myalgias), nausea, vomiting, sore throat, swollen lymph glands, and an enlarged spleen may also be present. Most symptoms are characteristically intermittent and changing, but malaise and fatigue may linger for weeks. Arthritis is present in about half of the patients with ECM, occurring within weeks to months following onset and lasting as long as 2 years. Early in the illness, migratory inflammation of ma ny joints (polyarthritis) without joint swelling may occur. Later, longer attacks of swelling and pain in several large joints, especially the knees, typically recur for several years. The knees commonly are much more swollen than painful; they are often hot, but rarely red. Baker's cysts (a cyst in the knee) may form and rupture. Those symptoms accompanying ECM, especially malaise, fatigue and low-grade fever, may also precede or accompany recurrent attacks of arthritis. About 10% of patients develop chronic knee involvement (i.e. unremittent for 6 months or longer). Neurological abnormalities may develop in about 15% of patients with Lyme disease within weeks to months following onset of ECM, often before arthritis occurs. These abnormalities commonly last for months, and usually resolve completely. They include: 1. lymphocytic meningitis or meningoencephalitis 2. jerky involuntary movements (chorea) 3. failure of muscle coordination due to dysfunction of the cerebellum (cerebellar ataxia) 4. cranial neuritis including Bell's palsy (a form of facial paralysis) 5. motor and sensory radiculo-neuritis (symmetric weakness, pain, strange sensations in the extremities, usually occurring first in the legs) 6. injury to single nerves causing diminished nerve response (mononeuritis multiplex) 7. inflammation of the spinal cord (myelitis). Abnormalities in the heart muscle (myocardium) occur in approximately 8% of patients with Lyme disease within weeks of ECM. They may include fluctuating degrees of atrioventricular block and, less commonly, inflammation of the heart sack and heart muscle (myopericarditis) with reduced blood volume ejected from the left ventricle and an enlarged heart (cardiomegaly). When Lyme Disease is contracted during pregnancy, the fetus may or may not be adversely affected, or may contract congenital Lyme Disease. In a study of nineteen pregnant women with Lyme Disease, fourteen had normal pregnancies and normal babies. If Lyme Disease is contracted during pregnancy, possible fetal abnormalities and premature birth can occur. Etiology ~~~~~~~~ Lyme disease is caused by a spirochete bacterium (Borrelia Burgdorferi) transmitted by a small tick called Ixodes dammini. The spirochete is probably injected into the victim's skin or bloodstream at the time of the insect bite. After an incubation period of 3 to 32 days, the organism migrates outward in the skin, is spread through the lymphatic system or is disseminated by the blood to different body organs or other skin sites. Lyme Disease was first described in 1909 in European medical journals. The first outbreak in the United States occurred in the early 1970's in Old lyme, Connecticut. An unusually high